2017 | AFC ACCOMPLISHMENTS 111 the moderator, allowing >90% of the neutrons to interact with the moderator, while at best only a few percent of the spallation neutrons have the potential to interact with the moderator. For the flux on sample, this insight brings down the difference of a laser-neutron source and LANSCE by at least two orders of magnitude. Since spallation also produces neutrons with >100 MeV neutron energies, while the neutrons produced by deuteron breakup are limited to less than 50 MeV (depending on deuteron energy), the shielding requirements for a laser driven neutron source are much less than for a spallation source. For the application, this translates to several meters closer sample positions (e.g. 1m vs. 10m), allowing to re-gain another two orders of magnitude for flux on sample.This brings LANSCE-like fluxes on sample within reach with today’s laser technology. At this time several groups are working on laser-driven neutron production and are advancing concepts for lasers, laser targets, and optimized neutron target/moderator systems. Advances in performance sufficient to enable poolside fuels characterization with LANSCE- like fluence on sample within a decade may be possible.The report describes the underlying physics and state-of-the-art of the laser-driven neutron production process from the perspective of the Department of Energy (DOE)/NE mission. It also discusses the development and understanding that will be necessary to provide customized capability for characterization of irradiated fuels.